Students express understanding and viewpoints about climate change

Students express understanding and viewpoints about climate change

Jolene Smock, a science teacher at Charter School of Excellence in Erie, PA recently engaged her 11th grade science class to think about science and climate change a little differently. Their challenge: to choose a focus of interest from a list of 29 climate change related topics, research it, and write an essay. Their essays were to describe the issue at hand, offer ideas to solve the problem, consider the types of careers that could help solve the problem, and to express themselves and their opinions.

Smock, who is a second-year participant in Sea Grant’s Center for Great Lakes Literacy (CGLL) teacher training program, says she was trying to find a new way to translate climate change studies to her students. After talking with PA Sea Grant’s senior education specialist, Marti Martz, she decided to engage her students in doing their own research about a topic they found interesting, and to write about it. ‘My students didn’t realize how much impact climate change has on things like our food, health, and energy. I’m glad I made the choice to do something a little different, because they really excelled at this assignment.’

Marti Martz thought it would be an interesting opportunity to showcase the students as spokespeople on the topic of climate change, and to share what they had learned this current year. ‘I think these essays do a great job of demonstrating how Jolene’s efforts have brought the issue of climate change home to her students,’ Martz said. ‘It’s a great opportunity to hear the voices and opinions of young students in the place of hearing our adult voices all the time.’

“Disclaimer: the following essays are the expressions and opinions of the individual student authors, and are also to not ever be construed as statement of fact, nor the opinion of Pennsylvania Sea Grant. This content is being shared to encourage student engagement and participation in environmental issues, and to validate the importance of learning and the processes tangled up in better understanding complex scientific issues, such as climate change.”

Climate Change and the Artic
By Alyssa Cranston

Climate change is an important, current and ongoing issue. This is especially true in the Arctic region. If you are unaware of what climate change is, it is a global or regional change in weather patterns that lasts for a long period of time. Climate change is greatly caused by the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide that will be produced by the utilization of fossil fuels, such as exhaust from cars and trucks, burning trash, and factory emissions. These are also contributing to global warming which is, a gradual rise in the overall temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. Some outcomes of global warming in the Arctic are rising temperatures in the air and in the water surrounding the Arctic. Another is the loss of sea ice and melting of ice sheets that will be caused by the increased temperatures. This also greatly impacts the Arctic plants and animals, they are rapidly dying, decreasing in numbers, possibly leading to their extinction. The melting ice sheets are destroying the wildlife population and increasing the sea level.

Humans play a huge role in climate change and global warming on Earth.

Human activities are the leading cause of climate change in the Arctic. Humans using fossil fuels is one of the biggest causes of climate change, fossil fuel combustion releases harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, negatively affecting it, leading to problems in the atmosphere such as, the hole in the ozone layer (created by CFCs). Pollution is also a huge factor of climate change, air pollutants affect the amount of sunlight coming into the atmosphere, some pollutants warm the Earth, while others cool it down, the most common pollutants are methane, black carbon, ground-level ozone, and sulfate aerosols. Deforestation is another huge leading cause to climate change by reversing the effects of carbon sequestration and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, deforestation is also responsible for about 18% of all global greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, even more than from transportation. Building houses and other structures affects the environment because it produces a ton of waste and harmful chemicals, which pollutes the land and air. The transportation needed to move supplies while the waste from the building site comes with a rather negative impact on the environment. As you can see, climate change is a huge issue that needs taken care of.

We started to realize and correct the problem in the late 1970s. The event that lead up to this point was in 1800-1870, when people noticed the level of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere was increasing after the industrial revolution. Humans are causing the problem by polluting the air and water and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, increasing the temperatures, causing global warming in the Arctic region. There are numerous environmental laws/treaties that were passed to assist stop the problem. These laws/treaties are, The Polar Code, The Barents Sea fisheries agreement, and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Most people now realize that climate change is a huge problem and needs to be fixed.

There are solutions to this problem, as long as we actually use and perform them. We can save gas and reduce its emission into the air by walking and biking more. We could also use electric cars, in the place of using vehicles that emit gas and other chemicals into the air. Planting more trees and plants often helps because they take in the carbon dioxide, removing it from the air and replacing it with oxygen, that will be healthy for us and the Earth/atmosphere. We should plant as many or more trees than we are cutting down, because we’re cutting down a ton of trees without replacing them and we need trees, they are essential for life and the air on Earth, without trees we wouldn’t have oxygen and our atmosphere wouldn’t be the same. We can eat more locally grown food that will reduce gas emissions from transporting food to us from out of town. Using less heat and air conditioning can also help, just lowering your house temperature two degrees in the winter and keeping it two degrees higher in the summer can make a pretty big difference. Saving electricity by turning off all lights, computers, TVs, and other electrical devices when you are not using them can also help. Also, if we use less hot water by lowering the temperature on your hot water tank, using low flow shower heads, washing clothes with cold water, and making use of the power saving mode on dishwashers could be very helpful. You could also use the reduce, reuse, recycle model. There are numerous technological advancements that could help with climate change in the Arctic. One that could really help is building giant walls around glaciers that can prevent warm ocean water from eroding the glaciers’ edges, by doing this, you can block the flow of tepid water, shielding the glacier from tepid water and reducing the melting rate significantly. Another technological advancement that could greatly help is creating cooling tunnels in the ice by drilling holes in glaciers, creating tunnels in the bedrock and pouring cold brine into them, which would freeze some of the water underneath the glacier, and slow the moving ice, and give the glacier more act 2 as you like it summary time to solidify once the brine starts flowing through the glaciers. Implementing new and improved navigation and communications satellites due to the fact current ones are inaccurate and unreliable at higher heights can also help. You can educate others and raise awareness about this problem by testing and training oil companies to clean up possible oil spills, donating time and money, posting about it on social media, putting it in the news, writing news articles or blogs about it, signing petitions, and using and attending different programs and training courses relating to it. It is possible to solve this issue, but the majority of us, humans have to be willing to work together and perform different actions to help stop climate change.

There are many different careers and people that help to stop and limit climate change. Some people who work to reduce climate change are Environmental Engineers, Environmental Scientists, and Public Relations Specialists. Environmental Engineers work to figure out techniques to protect or fix and correct environmental damages. Environmental Scientists mainly focus on forming and devising techniques to prevent or reduce pollution and improve the health of Earth and its dwellers. Public Relations Specialists work in media and communications to spread information to the public, they aim to get the public to support environmental causes, inform them, and increase their understanding of issues such as climate change. People who really care about the detrimental outcomes of climate change on the environment and want to help stop it, can get a job in this field or just doing some regarding the things mentioned can also help stop climate change.

Climate change is a rather real and important problem that we need to pay more attention to and do more to reduce and limit climate change.

The Arctic sea is important because its ice keeps the Polar Regions cool and helps moderate global climate. With climate change on the rise, the temperature of the sea is increasing and the ice is melting, that will be very bad. If the temperature increases too much, the ice will melt, destroying habitats for wildlife, but will also raise the sea levels, causing flooding to coastal cities. Due to the fact temperature rises and the ice melts, Arctic animals and plants will die and their numbers will decrease, even possibly becoming extinct eventually. Some techniques to bring more attention to this problem are, to inform more and more people about it, show more of it in the news and media, post more on social media, promote it more, sign petitions, and donate time & money to the issue. We can help ease this problem by reducing the amount of pollution in the air and water and decreasing the utilization of fossil fuels, so greenhouse gases do not rise into the atmosphere, heating up the Arctic air and sea temperatures. Figuring out another way to power cars without using dangerous fossil fuels, to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere could also help. Also, using less electricity and more solar energy would be helpful. In conclusion, we, humans really need to pay more attention to the climate change in the Arctic and work together to assist minimize the dangerous outcomes of global warming in the Arctic region.

Resources: GuJune, Katt. ‘The Arctic is not doomed: 8 Easy Ways You Can Stop the Arctic Ice from Melting.’ BetterWorldInternational.org, https://www.betterworldinternational.org/planet/8-easy-ways-stop-arctic-… Cox, David. ‘Two audacious plans for saving the world’s ice sheets.’ NBCnews.com, https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/can-these-bold-plans-keep-world-s-i… Rascoe, Ayesha and Shalal, Andrea. ‘U.S. Needs to Invest in Arctic Ships, Technology to Prepare for Climate Change.’ Scientific American, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/u-s-needs-to-invest-in-arctic… Sheng Hu, Feng. ‘Effects Of Human Activities And Climate Change.’ Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/tundra/Effects-of-human-activities-an…

Climate Change & Extreme Weather Conditions
By Keyasia Duck

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change can be caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, & volcanic eruptions. Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere in the amounts of greenhouse gases, aerosols, (small particles), and cloudiness. The largest known contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere.

It is very important people become aware of this because it causes more extreme weather.

We discovered Climate Change & Extreme Weather existed when we burn fossil fuels, such as coal & gas and we release carbon and it builds up in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases and aerosols affect climate by altering incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared (thermal) radiation that are part of Earth’s energy balance. River floods worldwide shows that 21 million people worldwide are affected by river floods each year on average. This number could increase to 54 million in 2030 due to climate change and socio-economic development. The following laws have been passed to assist with increased flooding. The national Flood Insurance Act of 1968, The Flood Insurance Protection Act of 1937, & The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994.

Some solutions to fix this problem is we can take sensible steps towards protecting our environment and human health. We can also take actions to prepare our communities for present and future outcomes of climate change. We can also lower the release of heat trapping gases like carbon often helps protect our health and well being by decreasing impacts on our climate system. We can educate people and raise awareness by making posters about it or the reporters can talk about it across the world to spread it around.

Solving this problem is very important because it can prevent a lot of things from happening or even beginning like houses and buildings being damaged by flooding from extreme weather. It can also be important because it can save people’s lives.

Resources: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/floods/…

Climate Change and Asthma
By Tamaria Jones

Climate change is associated with rising temperatures, changes in worldwide weather patterns, airborne pollution levels, and duration. Climate changes have also been observed to impact human health, including that of allergic individuals. When we burn carbon-based materials, carbon dioxide is emitted from what we burn and therefore, emits C02 into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide absorbs heat, and increases in atmospheric C02 levels suggest that the increase is coming from burning fossil fuels.

The warming of the earth is correlated to, and follows rising C02 emissions, which can influence climate. It can affect sun and ocean cycles, which can impact experiments relating to natural versus human influenced simulations of changes to the Earth. Increased water temperatures from climate change causes flowers to bloom earlier and increase the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. The changes in temperatures cause an increase in the concentration of pollen in the air. This increases the strength of airborne allergens and causes an increase in allergy symptoms.

People need to know this because allergies can be deadly. Everyone has different allergies and different reactions. The severity of allergies varies from person to person and certainly will consist of minor irritation to anaphylaxis, a potentially life threatening emergency. While most allergies can´t be cured, treatments often helps relieve your allergy symptoms.

I think if people know how much climate change hurt them and someone with allergies they would help stop things that pollute the air and cause climate change.

In 1984 corticosteroids were first used to treat asthma and allergic reactions. They worked by reducing the inflammation that would be caused by the allergens. The discovery of most cells in 1953 helped to identify what caused allergies to set off the immune response of the body. Maybe standoff with laws that were passed to slow climate change.

An Environmental law was passed and signed in March 2017 at the environment protection agency headquarters. This act saw the dismantling of the clean power plan of 2015. under the clean air act, the plan set state by targets for carbon emissions reductions and aimed to lower national electricity sector emissions overall by 32% below 2005 levels by 2050.

Eating healthy, often helps people with allergies if you eat lots of fresh veggies, fruits, nuts, grapes, apples, oranges, and tomatoes you will have fewer allergy symptoms. A nasal rinse tube that cleans your nose also reduces symptoms.

You can bring awareness to climate change and how it affects allergies by going more into depth with about climate change and explaining it to people all around the world.

Immunologists and doctors work with patients of all ages with allergic problems. Doctors can help you find some type of cure to quit it at the moment or reduce it. Stopping climate change is important for people who have allergies because in a way it helps them with their allergies. We need to talk about it more and bring more attention to the topic by seeing a doctor or immunologists or using technological tools to help.

Resources used: www.aaaai.org; www.webmd.com

Climate Change and Food
By Mashael Khuda Karam

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Human activities that cause climate change are: Human burning fuel and coal which release too much greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere like carbon dioxide that traps the heat in the atmosphere which, leads to a faster climate change. People and companies started to cut down forests by cutting a huge amount of trees each year from 3.5 to 7 billion trees each year and then they sell the timber to other countries in order to make furniture. Smaller trees are used for the production of charcoal, and human agriculture by replacing large trees with smaller plants that absorbs fewer amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. That will be another reason why the rate of carbon dioxide keeps increasing.

Human activities have increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Scientists notices changes in average temperatures, rainfall, pests, diseases; atmospheric carbon dioxide, ground-level ozone concentrations, and changes in the nutritional quality of some foods. Causes to all of these problems are human activities that lead to increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

Some of the laws or treaties that have been passed to slow or stop the problem of climate change are: The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations, itś long-term goal is to keep the increase in global temperatures down since this would substantially lower the risks and outcomes of climate change. Presidents signing treaties with other countries to assist the environment and slow or stop climate change will encourage other governments or countries to get involved in the treaty too; which will allow for better collaboration and better solutions.

It’s important to solve climate change because the impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk.

One of the dangerous effects are drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Some possible solutions are: reducing food waste by storing food in the right place, saving leftovers, keeping track of what is being thrown away, work on preserving food, keeping the fridge clutter-free, eat the skins of the vegetables & fruits, and shop smart. Encourage tropical forest restoration by starting organizations, groups, or associations, or even school groups that can save seeds, plant some trees, and work on planting native trees that belong to the area that is being restored. We should also limit power plant pollution by preventing about 90% of the mercury in the coal burned in power plants from being emitted to the air. This would reduce 88% of acid gas emissions, and reduce 41% of sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. Having companies go beyond the reductions expected from the cross-state air pollution rule would help reduce climate change even more.

There are numerous technological advancements to help deal with the problem of climate change. A lot of them are: sensors that help farmers reduce the number of chemicals in their fields. Smart boats which can help the fishermen manage their catch effectively, increasing profits and fish in the sea. Google cars mapping air pollution and its health effects. Wearable bracelets that track your daily chemical exposure.

There are different ways to educate or raise awareness by persuading others to collaborate toward a possible solution that is easy for everyone in the group. It can be a solution that can be done in a reasonable amount of time. You can encourage family and friends to spread the word, and join organizations such as the UNESCO association, and work with different schools and Universities. Another way to tell others about the impacts of climate change like drought, the rise in temperature, rise in sea level, fire danger in forests, and severe storms is by encouraging others to care about this climate change and collaborate to find a solution that will help our planet, the organisms, and our health.

There are careers where people work on techniques to stop the problem. They are: Atmospheric Scientists/Meteorologists, environment Scientists, and Specialists, and Environmental Engineers. Atmospheric Scientists and Meteorologists are commonly associated with producing weather forecasts, and they are concerned with understanding climate and some specialize in understanding how Earth’s climate is changing while others concentrate on determining the long-term impacts of climate change.

Environmental Scientists and Specialists specifically focus on developing techniques to reduce or prevent pollution and improve the health of the planet and its inhabitants. Some specialize in their field and work as climate change analysts and are also responsible for conducting research specifically related to the impact climate change is having on the world. Environmental Engineers are professionals who work to find techniques to correct or prevent environmental damage, and their duties can involve researching climate change and developing techniques to protect the environment, different scientists and people are working in careers related to the environment and the atmosphere. They truly are working hard to slow climate change and the impact of its occurrence.

It’s important to solve climate change due to the fact long-term impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk. One of the effects is drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Techniques to bring more attention to climate change and its impact on food are by making posters to describe the problem, techniques to solve it and show others that is something that needs to be solved. Posts on social media about the dangers on the food supply from changing the weather like: climate change increasing the risk of foodborne illness, lowering the nutritional value of the food. Climate change can also lead to chemical contaminants in the food chain, and extreme weather limits access to safe foods. Lastly, you can attract people to join environmental organizations that talk about the environment and the impacts of climate change on it, so they have a far better understanding of the problems and know what should be done. There are plenty of ways to attract people’s attention to climate change, but we need to find the best way.

References used: United states environmental protection agency. ‘Causes of Climate Change.’ EPA, https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-clim… Unesco. ‘Climate Change Education and Awareness.’ Unesco organization, https://en.unesco.org/themes/addressing-climate-change/climate-change-ed… David Suzuki. ‘Food and climate change.’ David Suzuki foundation, https://davidsuzuki.org/queen-of-green/food-climate-change/; Nanyang Technological University. ‘How can human activities cause climate change?’ EarthObservatory,https://earthobservatory.sg/faq-on-earth-sciences/how-can-human-activiti…

Climate Change and Strength of Hurricanes –
Mostly Just Climate Change Cus It’s Hard To Just Focus On Hurricanes Alone…
By Jacob Onorado

Climate change is the gradual change in average global weather activities caused by multiple factors, including the average temperature of the Earth (Known as global warming) due to excess greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, as-well-as others. Climate change contains many effects prevalent in the atmosphere, from increased overall temperatures to rising sea levels, to stronger storm and hurricane strength, to heatwaves, droughts, and floods, as-well-as other notable effects.

Although there are many causes of climate change, especially those caused by humans, the most notable/obvious human-related causes of climate change include that of global warming, in the form of an increase in greenhouse gas emissions from sources such as the burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, and other areas of activity.

There are many problems that climate change and global warming bring, and we’re just making them worse. We need to change how we do things, and we need to work on how to fix the problems we’re causing, as-well-as fixing the causes.

The average amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is approximately 400 ppm (parts per million). That’s 100 ppm higher than the previous highest carbon dioxide density in our atmosphere for the last Million years! This is certainly undoubtedly causing problems in our atmosphere. Over the course of human history, we have witnessed natural events caused by climate change and global warming, such as storms, hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves. We’ve been able to see the correlation of the change in the strength and amount of these events with the change in the average global temperature of Earth. Now, of course, it is good to note that correlation does not necessarily equal causation, although based on the evidence, it’s very hard to argue that climate change hasn’t had an effect.

Although there are some who believe otherwise, the main cause of Climate Change, and Global Warming, is humans. We release so much pollution and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, that we’re changing an entire planet. From cars to power plants to agriculture, and more.

Due to the fact knowledge of global warming, climate change, and pollution, and their consequences, such as the increasing power and frequency of ocean storms has been increasing over the years, more and more laws and regulations have been proposed and passed in order to cope. Such laws due to the fact Clean Air Act of 1963 or the Paris Climate Agreement are notable examples.

We know that we’re causing a problem, and many of us are trying to fix it, and so the main problem lies not in that we are causing a problem, but that there are those who disbelieve in the evidence and try and turn back the progress we’ve made in trying to fix it.

We’re slowly killing an entire planet, but not just any old rock in space, but our home. If we don’t fix what we’re breaking, we won’t have a home to live in. Our successors that we try our best to make a good future for, won’t have a future in the first place.

But what can we do to fix this?
• Increasing awareness of climate change while the consequences
• Doing our best to reduce our use of greenhouse gas emitting sources, such as fossil fuels from cars, or power plants, to finding better food production techniques.
• Finding better ways to accomplish the same things we use greenhouse gas producing sources for, such as heat, transportation, food production, electricity, and more.

We’ve made many technological advancements that are very promising, such as renewable energy. These technologies allow us to replace the main use of fossil fuels, and decrease a large portion of our greenhouse gas emissions. There are additionally advancements made in agriculture that allow us to be much more efficient.

In regards to the outcomes of climate change, such as increased extreme weather conditions (droughts, heatwaves, storms, hurricanes, etcetera) certain advancements such as better transportation, storage of goods, and early warning systems, have helped us deal with the largest portion of problems.

The best way to deal with these issues, though, is to raise awareness of them.

We need to make these issues widely known and talked about. The more people know of these issues and the problems they cause, the more push there will be to change policies and laws to prevent and fix them. There are organizations and websites that allow people to gain information and research the problems that are being caused by Climate Change, and then make their voices heard. If you believe Climate Change is an issue, I urge you to go to these websites, learn as much as you can about the problems being made, and then make your voice heard.

There are many people who work to reverse climate change. Activists that help raise awareness of the issues that we have to deal with. Scientists study the climate and the outcomes of its changes. Engineers advance technologies to allow us to use more efficient and eco-friendly sources and products. These people help to change our world for the better, and hopefully, their efforts work.

Climate Change is not natural, at least not how we’re seeing it. What we’re seeing is caused by humans, we’ve exploited our planet too much, and we also’re seeing the effects of it. We’re experiencing not only small weather problems, but big ones, and we’re seeing more of them too. Heat waves, droughts, storms, hurricanes: Each one of these used to be rare issues, or at the very least they used to be less of a common issue. The thing is though, we already have solutions to these problems! The only thing we need to do now raise awareness of these problems, and enact these solutions by replacing all our problematic technologies with less problematic, and more efficient ones!

Resources: C2es.org https://www.c2es.org/content/international-emissions/; Climate.Gov https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-chan… https://www.wikipedia.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Air_Act_(United_States)

The Greenhouse Effect
By Nadieshka Perez

Climate change is the changes that occur in the Earth’s climate system, resulting in new weather that lasts for a few decades or millions of years. A few human activities that cause climate change are the burning of fossil fuels (such as oil and coal), deforestation, and agriculture. Those three things emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Though some of the things that release greenhouse gases occur naturally, the concentration of CO2 did not rise above 300 parts per million (ppm) in the past. Today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is about 400 parts per million.

The greenhouse effect is the trapping of the Sun’s warmth in the planet’s lower atmosphere. The combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, fertilizer usage conclusion of global warming essay (which increases the nitrous oxide emissions), while the transporting, extracting, processing, and distributing of fossil fuels all release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. There have been many attempts to slow down greenhouse gas emissions by making laws.
Examples include a law introduced by Senator Chuck Grassley, who added the renewable energy production tax credit to the energy policy. Another example would be June 2009, when the House passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 by a vote of 219 to 212.

It is vital to find a solution to the rise in greenhouse gas emissions. Increases in greenhouse gases can result in climate change and temperatures getting out of control. Some simple solutions to the problem could be ‘reducing, reusing, and recycling’, driving less and walking or riding a bike instead, or using less electricity. A way of releasing less greenhouse gases could be making use of the heater and air conditioning less.

There’s quite a few jobs that attempt to prevent climate change and slowing down the greenhouse effect. There are environmental scientists, environmental engineers, environmental protection specialist, etc. There’s also greenhouse gas verifiers and greenhouse gas program managers. Greenhouse gas verifiers collect data and audits as well as develop verification reports and sampling plans. Greenhouse gas program managers are responsible for defining and executing greenhouse gas compliance strategies for North America and other places.

Climate change is any specific long term change in the pattern of average weather of a region over a significant amount of time. Some ways of bringing more attention to the greenhouse effect and its causes in climate change are speaing frankly about it with others who are interested in reducing their greenhouse gas thus slowing climate change.

You could talk about it on social media, or make a video or blog about the subject and posting it since many people are online a lot.

It is vital to find a way to slow the greenhouse effect before temperatures get out of control.

Resources: ‘How human activities produce greenhouse gases’ -United Nations Environment Program https://unfccc.int/cop3/fccc/climate/fact22.htm; ‘Discovery of the greenhouse effect’ – J.M.K.C. Donev et al. (2019). Energy Education https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Discovery_of_the_greenhouse_effe…’ Congress Climate History’ – Center For Climate And Energy Solutions https://www.c2es.org/content/congress-climate-history/; ‘Ten Ways To Reduce Greenhouse gases’ http://www.eastgwillimbury.ca/services/Environment/Ten_ways_to_Reduce_Gr…’Innovating Energy Solutions: Research and Development highlights’ https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/Research-and-innovation/Research-and…

Climate Change in the Arctic
By Courtney Turbaczewski

About half of the light reaching Earth’s atmosphere passes through the air and clouds to the surface, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward in the form of infrared heat. About 90 percent of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases and radiated back toward the surface, that will be warmed to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius).

Scientists agree that today’s warming is primarily caused by humans putting too much carbon in the atmosphere, like when we choose to extract and burn coal, oil, and gas, or cut down and burn forests.

Many Places like India and china (places that are overpopulated) are much more a main part of why this is certainly happening.

My project is on climate change in the arctic. The arctic region is warmer than it used to be and it continues to get warmer. Over the past 30 years it has warmed more than any other region on Earth. Most scientists agree that Arctic weather changes and climate change, generally, are a result of human activity. Because, the Arctic is warming the sea ice, snow cover, ice caps plus the permafrost are all changing and not in a good way. Arctic sea ice cover has declined by 30 percent in the past 30 years. Studies also show that overall snow in the Arctic has also decreased.

Changes in the Arctic climate are important due to the fact Arctic acts as a refrigerator for the rest of the world. The arctic region gives off more heat to space than it absorbs from outside, which helps cool the planet.

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